2.6
2023

Variables predicting clinical remission among adults with severe asthma treated with biologic agents

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Authors Information

Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Chest Diseases, University of Health Sciences Atatürk Sanatoryum Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

History

Published: 06 December 2023
Accepted: 29 November 2023
Received: 27 September 2023

SUMMARY

Background. Although biologic agents promise a short- to medium-term remission in asthma, it is unclear whether they can fundamentally alter disease course and achieve long-term remission. We aimed to investigate the clinical remission success of biologics in patients with severe asthma and the factors associated with remission. Methods. Adults followed-up due to severe asthma who were treated with mepolizumab or omalizumab were included in the study. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were reviewed. Subjects with and without clinical remission at 12 and 36 months were identified. Comparisons between the groups were made with univariate and multivariable analyses. Results. Seventy-four patients were included in the study. The mean age of subjects was 51.85 (standard deviation: 11.43) years, and 50 (67.57%) were females. The 12- and 36-month remission rates were 72.97% and 51.79%, respectively. Patients with and without remission were similar in terms of age and gender distribution. FEV1% predicted (p = 0.009) and FEV1/FVC ratio (p = 0.039) were significantly higher in those with remission at 12 months compared to those without. FEV1 (p<0.001), FEV1% predicted (p<0.001) and FEV1/FVC ratio (p = 0.004) were significantly higher in those with remission at 36 months compared to those without. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that higher FEV1% predicted was the only factor independently associated with remission for both time points. Conclusions. Omalizumab and mepolizumab provide significant clinical remission rates in severe asthma. FEV1% predicted is a variable that can independently predict clinical remission among severe asthmatics receiving biologic agents.

KEY WORDS
Severe asthma; remission; biologics; omalizumab; mepolizumab; forced expiratory volume in 1 second.

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European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ISSN 1764-1489 | © 2024