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Delayed corticosteroid hypersensitivity: a clinical management proposal


S. Voltolini Susanna.v@alice.it 1, F. Fumagalli2

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Doi
http://doi.org/10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.164  

Summary
Background. Different clinical pictures are related to corticosteroids (CS) non immediate hypersensitivity and the frequency of these reactions can be underestimated. The classification of CS in 3 groups and the identification of two patient's profiles has been proposed by Baeck to help clinicians in the management of these cases. Methods. Data of 14 patients with clinical history of delayed reactions to various CS and positive skin test and/or oral challenge are retrospectively analyzed. Results. Three different patterns of patients are identified evaluating history, clinical picture and tests results. The first one (6 pts, 43%) is characterized by cutaneous and/or mucosal reaction due to inhaled Budesonide and patch test positive only to topical molecules belonging to the group 1 of CS. The second pattern (4 pts) has clinical history of local and systemic skin reactions to the topic and parenteral administration of the same or other steroid drugs. Patients belonging to the third pattern (4 pts) have a history of systemic reactions to general administration of CS without previous contact reaction. Pattern 2 and 3 show a wide sensitization to molecules belonging to the 3 groups of CS. All the patients show patch test positive to Budesonide. Conclusions. Although the lack of standardization, the allergy workup proves useful to differentiate patients sensitized to one or few molecules from polysensitized and to identify the culprit drugs. Intradermal and challenge test are necessary to complete the diagnostic workup. The results suggest the possibility of a different management of patients. Patients of pattern one can be only patch tested with a limited series of CS belonging to the 3 groups. They don't need an extensive exclusion of steroids use. The pattern 2 and 3 must be submitted instead to a complete allergological individual evaluation to identify alternative tolerated drugs, because of the risk of systemic reactions. The Baeck's classification shows limited usefulness in these cases.

Key words
Steroid allergy; delayed hypersensitivity; drug allergy; systemic contact dermatitis.

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