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Prospective study of consecutive patch testing in patients with contact dermatitis using an adapted Latin American baseline series


P. E. S. Belluco belluco@outlook.com1, P. Giavina-Bianchi2, R. Z. F. Belluco1, M. R. C. G. Novaes1, C. M. S. Reis1

Show more: Authors information and Publication history

Doi
10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.250

Summary
Background. Contact dermatitis is a disease characterized by pruritic skin lesions with high prevalence rates. The patch test is an instrument to evaluate contact allergies. Current data on characteristics of the affected population and studies about patch testing using adequate baseline series are needed. Objective. To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a population with suspected contact dermatitis who underwent to a patch testing using an adapted Latin American baseline series in the departments of allergy and dermatology of a referral center in Brasília, Brazil, between March and December 2020. Methods. Observational, descriptive and analytical clinical study with prospective data collection was performed in consecutively evaluated patients at a referral center. The results of 208 participants who underwent patch testing using an adapted Latin American baseline series containing 40 allergens were analyzed, and the prevalence of contact allergies was compared with data from the literature. Pearson's chi-square test was used to calculate the odds ratio and respective 95% confidence interval for qualitative variables. Quantitative variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The four most prevalent allergens were entered into multiple binary logistic regression models as response variables to identify the main explanatory variables associated with these allergies. The significance of the regression parameters was tested using the Wald statistical test. Results. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. A total of 67.9% had one or more positive tests. Among those with positive tests, 82.8% were women (OR = 1.371; p = 0.398). The hands were the most commonly affected site at 43%. An occupational history  was detected in 19.2%. The most common allergen was nickel sulfate (32.2%), followed by sodium tetrachloropalladate (19.7%), fragrance mix I (15.4%), and methylisothiazolinone (13.5%). In multivariate logistic regression models, nickel was significantly related to female sex (p < 0.05), as well as palladium (p < 0.05). Fragrance mix I was related to a family history of allergy (p < 0.05). On the other hand, methylisothiazolinone was statistically significantly related to face (p < 0.05) and hand (p < 0.001) lesions. Conclusions. This study demonstrated a detailed profile of a population with suspected allergic contact dermatitis. Our patch test results, using an adapted Latin American baseline series, represent a significant update of this important diagnostic tool.

Key words

Contact dermatitis; patch test; allergy; Latin American; COVID-19.

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