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Severity and duration of allergic conjunctivitis: are they associated with severity and duration of allergic rhinitis and asthma?


M. C. Sánchez-Hernández mcesar.sanchez@hotmail.es1, M. T. Dordal2, A. M. Navarro1, I. Dávila3, B. Fernández-Parra4, C. Colás5, C. Rondón6, A. del Cuvillo7, F. Vega8, J. Montoro9, M. Lluch-Bernal10, V. Matheu11, P. Campo6, M. L. González12, R. González-Pérez11, A. Izquierdo-Domínguez13, A. Puiggros14, M. Velasco15, A. Fernández-Palacín16, A. Valero17, SEAIC Rhinoconjunctivitis Committee 2014-2018

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Doi
10.23822/EurAnnACI.1764-1489.231

Summary
Objective. The association of allergic conjunctivitis (AC) with rhinitis and/or asthma is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to apply the Consensus Document for Allergic Conjunctivitis (DECA) criteria for the classification of AC to a population of patients with AC to assess the association between the severity and duration of AC and rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods. Patients with ocular symptoms of AC who participated in the 'Alergológica 2015' study were included. The demographics, classification according to the DECA criteria, etiology, and comorbidities were evaluated by age groups (≤ 14 and > 14 years). Results. A total of 2,914 patients (age range, 1-90 years) were included in the "Alergológica 2015" study. Of these, 965 patients (33.1%) were diagnosed with AC (77.5% > 14 years). AC was classified as severe, moderate, or mild in 1.8%, 46.4%, and 51.8%, respectively; and as intermittent or persistent in 51.6% and 48.4% of the patients. AC alone occurred in 4% of patients. AC was mainly associated with rhinitis (88.4%), asthma (38.2%), food allergy (8.3%) and atopic dermatitis (3.5%). In allergic respiratory disease rhinitis preceded AC and asthma developed later. The severity and duration of AC was significantly associated with severity and duration of rhinitis (p < 0.001 for both age groups) and asthma (p < 0.001 only in adults). Conclusions. The application of the new DECA classification for AC reveals a direct relationship between AC, rhinitis and asthma respect to severity and duration. These relationships suggest that AC should be considered an integral part of the 'one airway, one disease' hypothesis. 

Key words

Allergic conjunctivitis; allergic comorbidity; allergic respiratory disease; epidemiology. 

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